Bergelar Ulul Azmi Sekalipun, Nabi Musa AS Tetaplah Manusia Biasa

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

Nabi Musa as merupakan salah satu nabi dengan sematan gelar Ulul Azmi berkat ketabahannya yang luar biasa. Pun demikian ia tetaplah manusia biasa yang mempunyai rasa takut dan cemas saat menerima perintah dari Alloh swt. Nouman Ali Khan menggarisbawahi fase penting ini saat Nabi Musa as menerima perintah dari Alloh swt untuk berbicara dengan Fir’aun guna memperingatkan perilakunya yang sudah melampaui batas.

Dokumentasi tahap ini Alloh swt sebutkan dalam surat asy-Syu’ara’ (Para Penyair), surat ke-26 dalam Alqur’an ayat ke-10 hingga ke-14. Nabi Musa as tidak mengira, Alloh swt memintanya kembali ke Mesir untuk berkonfrontasi langsung dengan Fir’aun setelah beberapa tahun meninggalkan negaranya tersebut agar tidak dibunuh oleh pejabat Mesir paska pembunuhan yang tidak sengaja ia lakukan.

Ketika menerima perintah langsung tersebut, Nabi Musa as sadar betul kemampuannya. Belum lagi, beliau masih teringat dengan kesalahan di masa lalu. Sehingga terjadilah dialog antara Alloh swt dan Nabi Musa as sebagai berikut:

وَاِذْ نَادٰى رَبُّكَ مُوْسٰٓى اَنِ ائْتِ الْقَوْمَ الظّٰلِمِيْنَ ۙ

10. Dan (ingatlah) ketika Tuhanmu menyeru Musa (dengan firman-Nya), “Datangilah kaum yang zalim itu,

قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ ۗ اَلَا يَتَّقُوْنَ

11. (yaitu) kaum Fir‘aun. Mengapa mereka tidak bertakwa?”

قَالَ رَبِّ اِنِّيْٓ اَخَافُ اَنْ يُّكَذِّبُوْنِ ۗ

12. Dia (Musa) berkata, “Ya Tuhanku, sungguh, aku takut mereka akan mendustakan aku,

وَيَضِيْقُ صَدْرِيْ وَلَا يَنْطَلِقُ لِسَانِيْ فَاَرْسِلْ اِلٰى هٰرُوْنَ

13. sehingga dadaku terasa sempit dan lidahku tidak lancar, maka utuslah Harun (bersamaku).

وَلَهُمْ عَلَيَّ ذَنْۢبٌ فَاَخَافُ اَنْ يَّقْتُلُوْنِ ۚ

14. Sebab aku berdosa terhadap mereka, maka aku takut mereka akan membunuhku.”

Nabi Musa as tidak langsung mengiyakan perintah dari Alloh swt. Ada lima alasan yang beliau kemukakan; takut dibilang pembohong, dadanya terasa sempit, lidahnya yang tidak lancar berbicara dikarenakan kekurangan bicaranya. Maka Nabi Musa as merekomendasikan saudaranya, Harun as, yang ia nilai lebih cakap dalam berbicara. Nabi Musa as tidak menampik takut akan dibunuh. Terlebih dari semuanya, Nabi Musa as takut akan dihinakan di hadapan rakyat Mesir akibat dosanya di masa lalu.

Nouman Ali Khan sengaja mengambil bagian ini untuk menyindir orang yang menurutnya “lebih Islami dari Islam yang sesungguhnya”. Dengan berbekal “Allohu akbar” lalu memotivasi orang untuk rela mati, sebagai contoh. Padahal Alloh swt melalui Islam sangat memaklumi rasa cemas dan takut. Tidak perlu malu pula mengakui seorang muslim butuh bantuan orang lain, terutama dari keluarga sendiri.

Nouman juga menyebut terkadang ketakutan terbesar dalam diri manusia adalah memperoleh penghinaan, seperti yang dialami oleh Nabi Musa as di atas. Beliau takut Fir’aun akan mengungkit pembunuhan yang dia lakukan di masa lalu dan menjadikannya senjata untuk menyerang balik sebelum ia melaksanakan misi mulianya.

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#StoryNightJakarta Nouman Ali Khan (Bagian I) Pentingnya Mengakrabi Kisah Nabi Musa AS Lagi dan Lagi

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

“Hmm.. Nabi Musa lagi ya?”

Begitu yang sigap terlintas di benakku tatkala Nouman Ali Khan membuka #StoryNightJakarta di Balai Kartini, Jakarta Selatan pada Minggu (10/3/2019). Beliau memang khas banget orangnya. Langsung ke pokok cerita tanpa banyak basa-basi. Seolah bisa membaca pikiranku, Nouman Ali Khan menyebut sendiri mengapa sih harus berkisah tentang Nabi Musa as, lagi dan lagi.

Sebelum menyimak malam dongeng itu, aku sudah beberapa kali melahap video Nouman tentang Nabi Musa as, baik yang khusus ataupun penggalan dari kisah hidup nabi ini. Jadi wajar kan jika aku bertanya-tanya apalagi yang mesti aku ketahui dari kisah hidup nabi yang satu ini.

Salah satu aspek yang paling aku kagumi dari Nouman adalah beliau terstruktur dalam berkhutbah. Bahkan saat bercerita super panjang, seperti 3,5 jam malam itu pun, Nouman tetap lurus menjaga maksud dakwah walaupun ia menyisipkan banyak sekali cerita kelakar dan himbauan introspeksi diri. Istilahnya, Nouman bisa menjaga agar nggak ngalor ngidul berkepanjangan.

Langsung saja Nouman mengajakku meninjau kembali mengapa sih harus Nabi Musa as lagi?

Jawabannya ada di kemiripan kisah Nabi Musa as dengan Rosululloh Muhammad saw. Jalan hidup dua nabi ini secara garis besar mengandung banyak persamaan meski hidup pada zaman yang berbeda jauh.

Nouman menyebutkan Nabi Musa as menghadapi dua ujian berat dalam hidupnya, yang pertama dari Fir’aun yang mengaku Tuhan. Kedua datang justru dari kaumnya sendiri, Bani Israil. Sama dengan Nabi Muhammad saw, dimana ujian pertama datang dari suku Quraisy lalu berikutnya datang dari kaum muslimin sendiri saat Islam sudah meraih reputasi.

Menghadapi Fir’aun dan suku Quraisy sama-sama membuat dua utusan Alloh swt ini berjuang mati-matian membuktikan siapa Tuhan yang sebenarnya, bahwa mereka tak lain hanya makhluk ciptaan Tuhan yang tidak berhak mengklaim diri sebagai pencipta langit dan bumi.

Sementara menghadapi kaum sendiri yang munafik lain soal. Baik Nabi Musa as dan Muhammad saw mengalami masalah ini saat mereka terbebas dari persoalan pertama. Istilah umumnya, ada musuh dalam selimut. Untuk kasus Nabi Muhammad saw, Alloh swt sampai menurunkan beberapa surat Madaniyah atau surat yang memang diturunkan di Madinah setelah Nabi Muhammad saw hijrah. Saat itu Islam sudah meraih banyak pengikut tetapi bukan berarti tanpa masalah. Yang ada malah golongan muslim munafik yang merongrong citra baik Islam. Surat Al-Munafiqun (ke-63) adalah salah satu contoh surat yang Alloh swt rekam tentang hal ini.

Poin yang kedua tidak Nouman sebut saat #StoryNightJakarta melainkan dalam salah satu videonya. Rasanya pas bila aku sebut di sini. Persamaan antara dua nabi ini adalah Alloh swt memberikan mukjizat terbesar dalam hidup masing-masing nabi ini justru dari kelemahan mereka.

Nabi Musa as dikenal mempunyai masalah dengan pengucapannya. Tak heran ia malah merekomendasikan saudaranya, Harun as, untuk mengemban misi berbicara dengan Fir’aun. Tetapi Alloh swt berkehendak lain. Ia memberikan mukjizat terbesar berupa kata-kata dalam dialog Nabi Musa AS dengan Fir’aun yang membuat sang tirani tak berkutik.

Sedangkan Nabi Muhammad saw, sebagaimana yang kita tahu, seorang yang buta huruf. Tetapi sabda Alloh swt yang pertama kali turun adalah “iqra’” alias “bacalah”. Padahal Nabi Muhammad saw sama sekali tidak bisa membaca. Selama 22 tahun, 2 bulan dan 22 hari, Alqur’an Alloh swt turunkan melalui perantara malaikat Jibril ke Nabi Muhammad saw. Alqu’ran kemudian dibuat menjadi buku untuk wahyu yang sebenarnya berwujud cerita. Menurut Nouman, alasan Alloh swt membuat Alqur’an berupa cerita adalah karena Alloh swt mengetahui manusia akan lebih mudah mengingat jika berupa cerita, bukan buku teks yang cenderung formal.

Buat aku pribadi refleksi sangat penting dari persamaan terakhir dua manusia teladan ini adalah kita nggak pernah tahu bahwa justru kekurangan kita akan menjadi kelebihan kita nantinya. Dan sebaliknya. Terkadang kita juga nggak mengetahui bahwa sebenarnya kita mampu melakukan hal yang nggak pernah terbayangkan sebelumnya. Di situlah peran Alloh swt sangat besar, untuk memampukan kita melakukan hal di luar nalar kita sendiri. Sebab memang hanya Alloh swt yang memahami apa yang Dia ciptakan. Karena hanya Alloh swt lah yang mengetahui mengapa justru kekurangan atau kelebihan kita yang akan membuat kita mengemban amanah besar dariNya.

 

 

 

 

Rising our reading bar

Our brains can outstretch more than we can ever imagine. From memories in the past to future plans, our brains can process them all. Within a few seconds, the brain can go from this topic to that issue. Remembering people’ faces, places’ names and vocabulary are few additional things the brains can work.

The brains can either do many things or very few items depending our treatment on them. Much like muscles, the brains require exercises. Gradual workouts will not only enhance the brains working capacity but also help us dealing with memory as we age.

Reading has long been known as a powerful way to train the brains. To keep the brains well working, daily reading is recommended. As information stream has been flowing swifter than ever, readers may get trapped with what type of reading that brings optimum benefit for the brains.

At this point, rising our reading bar is necessary. Whichever kind of materials that you love to read, enhancing our reading preference with good intention can help us so much to keep the brains remain in proper exercise.

First of all, you can stay on the track of reading themes that you really love but now with various sub themes. For instance, you like reading about fashion. While for the past few years, all you read is about latest fashion trend, why don’t you now try gaining insight on history of each fashion item? Don’t you think reading that sub topic will encourage you linking what the fashion item has to do with certain cultural value of specific region or country?

Secondly, you can try reading books about topics that don’t really excite you but they are important. Let us say, you dislike politic but whether you like it or not, politic is vital for each nation building. This may take extra effort to complete reading books about politic but once you try, you give yourself room to open parts of your brains expanding for gathering new knowledge.

The third part can be reading books about controversial issues that stir up conspiracy theories from those interested on them. Find out past cases that bring up discussions among people in the world. Like history about Adolf Hitler, Osama Bin Laden, Bermuda Triangle and world’s famous leaders that spark your curiosity. Read as many as you can and draw your own conclusion. Doing this will increase your level not only as a reader but as a researcher for the benefits of your brain.

With those recommendations I hope you and I will never get bored in reading. Stay up high in gaining information everyone because our brains need to stay refreshed and smart!

Reading with intention

Most of us agree that reading is a beneficial activity. It enriches our insight, trains our brains and engages us in positive activity. If so, why should we bother ourselves select which materials to be read? For once in a while, we need to put down our books, Kindles or smartphones for pondering over the question.

As technology is getting more advanced, obtaining information nowadays is very easy. Within a few clicks away, the world becomes very near to our very eyes. Words, pictures, and videos of our dream cities, for instance, become so simple to enjoy. Similarly, information stream from even world leaders themselves is accessible. Live stream events through social media becomes ordinary that oftentimes we forget how exclusive it was to get in touch with current events back in 1980s or 1990s.

With quick internet connection provides us room to get to know news and express ourselves through social media, one devastating impact occurs and this has been happening in Indonesia. The negative effect is called hoaxes.

As we can’t control what other people say or write in their blogs or social media accounts, we can do so much to prevent hoaxes having more spaces to tear our society apart. Reading with intention is an alternative way to not only dismiss more hoax potentials emerging in our circle but also upgrade our knowledge level.

So, where and how we start this?

First and foremost, recognize that reading requires our time and surely, we don’t want to spend precious hours reading materials that we know won’t add something to our brain. Filter news, information or books that mostly benefit to our knowledge. We can simply start by reading things on themes that we love the most.

Secondly, get to know elements that make articles carry unchecked, unverified, fabricated facts. Usually, these types of articles provide bombastic titles, use words that will likely excite readers’ attention. Beware when reading these types of articles. Don’t quickly accept what they tell us. Train to check and recheck contents of the articles by comparing them with those from other media.

The third one is enhancing our own reading level. It is definitely fine when we read stories on latest news on entertainment, which movies that get most attention from moviegoers, and such thing. But reading too many articles on artists’ gossips can cost our valuable time and worse, can cause us addiction. At a glance we may feel okay with this because we affirm ourselves that reading is after all a good activity. What some don’t recognize is that reading trashy materials is unhealthy one.

As we practice selecting and filtering which information we read, we will hesitate to share articles that we doubt their facts in our social media network. We will be encouraged to dig deeper which information that is true. We will look for trustworthy media sources that report on the same issues. Only then hoaxes will find smaller and smaller space. Let us get smart in reading. Let us fighting against hoaxes!

 

Quick reviews on Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories that frighten, disgust and awe me

Reading Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories is never easy. It doesn’t matter that his short story that I read is only several pages long or more than 10 pages, his works present before me new challenges. From understanding his investigative method to reading the minds of his characters, Poe’s works are very worthy of further personal researching.

In Tales of Mystery and Imagination that I bought a few weeks ago, I skipped his famous detective fictions; Murders in the Rue Morgue and The Mystery of Marie Roget. I was trying hard to get his ideas but his style was too complicated for me. I didn’t understand what he was conveying. Probably I will get back to them later on when I feel my brain is smart enough.

In the meantime, here are some titles that I read (some are with hard efforts):

  1. The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar (1845)

This was my first experience of knowing that Poe is indeed a very creepy author. M. Ernest Valdemar, as the main character in the short story foreshadows, suffered from severe illness that he was dying. On approaching his death, he asked for the narrator to try saving him by conducting mesmerism. Mesmerism was the name given by German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (Lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living things, including humans, animals and vegetables. The doctor believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing and he tried but to no avail for achieving scientific recognition of his ideas.

The narrator put the sick man in a suspended hypnotic state. Seven months passed yet M. Valdemar didn’t get better. Each time the narrator visited him, he neither really awoke nor slept. He replied the narrator’s questions by saying “I have been sleeping – and now- now- I am dead”, among the things. Until the very last visit, M. Valdemar instead asked for the narrator to end the practice, saying, “For God’s sake! – quick!- quick! Put me to sleep -or quick! Waken me- quick! I say to you that I am dead!”

What disturbs me is when the narrator halted the practice and the sick man eventually dead. This is because M. Valdemar’s body was changed, decayed into loathsome putrescence. Two things that attract me are the term mesmerism and the disgusting description of M. Valdemar on his way to death.

  1. MS. Found in a Bottle (1833)

The plot of the short story is very simple. An unnamed narrator sailed from Batavia (now Jakarta) but then faced horrible circumstances that made him and other passengers sinking into the sea in a series of disasters. MS means manuscript, which in this short story means the manuscript that the narrator wrote to have described his experiences before the ship he was in was sinking while reaching Antartica.

Poe fascinates me with his narration style here. He vividly describes scenes, facial changes of the narrator and other passengers he came across. The way Poe depicts when the ship sinks, the narrator’s fear and his struggle to get back on waters bring me strong pictures on tremendous, horrific situations that the narrator faces at that time. There isn’t any better technique of inviting readers to closely feel what characters in fictions experience than the one like in MS. Found in a Bottle.

  1. A Descent into the Maelstrom (1841)

The core of this short story is quite similar to the second I mentioned here. Poe presents a man who recalled his life-and-death experience with his brother when a whirlpool and shipwreck suddenly struck them. Unlike the unnamed narrator in the second story, the man in the third story survived so that he was able to have described the deadly and frightening moment in his life.

I really like how Poe, again, describes the man’s experience here. Much like the second story, Poe details every single process when the disasters occur. He is so skilled at building tension that the climax reaches my nerve. Poe successfully makes me feeling the tense and the suspense of the shipwreck and the whirlpool. I can’t imagine if I were experiencing them.

  1. The Purloined Letter (1844)

I honestly didn’t follow details of the story because of the intricate story full of clues, suspicions, guesses and political relations. This is the third part of the three detective stories other than The Murder of the Rue Morgue and The Mystery of Marie Roget with fictional C. Auguste Dupin as the detective.

As the title suggests, the short story revolves around a letter that went missing from the boudoir of an unnamed woman done by Minister D. Dupin and the narrator of the story were joined by one of their friends called as G from Perfect police unit. He told them on the missing letter that was believed to contain important information. But the Perfect couldn’t find the letter even after they searched the apartment of the minister. Dupin applied his tactic that eventually earned him the letter and the reward the G gave to him.

I am awed by Poe’s complicated story-telling style and (after I read Wikipedia) doubly mind reading applied by the minister and Dupin. Despite Dupin is said as amateur, his strategy of getting the letter is brilliant.

  1. The Fall of the House of Usher (1839)

I had known the title long, long time ago and last night I finally read it. I was enjoying the story very much despite the fact I am a coward. I couldn’t help being hypnotized by Poe’s smooth, beautiful way of describing the atmosphere, the scenery, the night mode and many small elements that were leading to the climax of the story. Add to that was Poe’s depiction of Roderick Usher as dying man. And of course Usher’s only sister, Madeline, who was severely ill then dead. Better not to provide details of the story. You have to read it by yourself then feel horrific, hysterical mode in it. A sense of supranatural, metaphysical is well-combined into major theme on loneliness, isolation and madness.

I intentionally didn’t complete reading the story last night then resumed it this morning because of very powerful scary mode that I felt when the story hadn’t reached the peak. I was afraid I couldn’t sleep imagining how the finale scene would be. That’s how influential Poe’s writing style left me with.

 

 

Three bookworms’ films/series anthem. Which one is your favorite?

Let us take a break from high literature discussion. I would like to share some of memorable films and series from the past that have occupied special places in my heart because they portray bookworms and bookstores. I loved watching them years ago. Back then, I wasn’t that very much into reading fictions. I was a student who spent much of my time studying and reading books for attaining good grades at school.

Little did I know about their impacts on my life as a book lover at that time. But now as I have been growing up liking fictions even more, I watched again some of their special, funny and epic moments. Without further ado, here is the list:

  1. “Matilda” (1996)

Picture is from giphy.com

“Matilda” entertained me so much with her magic. As I stated above, I hadn’t been a book lover when I was a junior high school kid so her trait that amused me was her magical power. Matilda Wormwood (Mara Wilson) was very cute little girl, smart and openly-spoken kid. She wasn’t shy to express her ideas.

She had very annoying father, Harry (Danny DeVito) and Zinnia who were mistreating her. Matilda was genius but even so, her parents were initially forbidding her going to school. She spent time reading classic books, like Moby-Dick, which amazes me considering she was very little.

But then, her parents allowed her going to school after a series of arguments that saw her showing her superpower. LOL. While I loved watching her bravery, magic power and such thing when I was an amateur reader, now I recalled again bookish scenes as I have been an avid reader for some years. Replaying them refreshes my reading spirit and saluting her or any kids out there who have developed reading habits since very young.

  1. “Gilmore Girls” (2000-2007)

Photo by giphy.com

Again, I didn’t call myself as a bookworm when the TV series were playing. I was at senior high school level at that time. I loved reading but limited to school materials. I didn’t count that as the type of book that supported me as a bookworm. Anyway, I love the series because it is so funny, spontaneous and yes, fast-talking. I haven’t known any mother-daughter relationship closer than Lorelai (Lauren Graham) and Rory (Alexis Bledel). Another remarkable thing about the show is how intimate and friendly the neighborhood where they were living. Mutual respect amongst them all.

And now after I can declare myself as a self-proclaimed bookworm, what astonishes me is of course the profile of Rory as a book addict. She is super smart who takes books everywhere. Then, coffee because now I really love drinking cappuccino. Both Lorelai and Rory like coffee so much. Ah, the series is really a joy to watch and watch.

  1. “You’ve Got Mail” (1998)

Photo by wifflegif.com

Different with the two titles, although I wasn’t reading very much, I quickly loved the title because of the bookstore Kathleen Kelly (Meg Ryan) was managing. And she was in dispute with Frank Navasky (Tom Hanks) who was about to open a modern mega bookstore that would threaten the existence of the small independent store Kathleen was running.

I won’t retell here the essence of the film. The romantic comedy film is so popular until today for the hate-and-love relationship and the moral message of the film on possible love interest nearby us all. For me, yes, it is the bookstore and the coffee Kathleen was taking on her route to her office alias the bookstore.

Those are all my beloved titles. Which one if your favorite? Or maybe you want to add more films below?

 

 

 

 

 

Wilkie Collins’s Count Fosco Reminds Me So Much of Sengkuni

Sangkuni illustration. Picture source: abasrin.com

Wilkie Collins’s Count Fosco and Vyasa’s Sengkuni or Sangkuni have many hateful yet agile traits one can relate and learn. Written in centuries apart, “Mahābhārata” and “The Woman in White” captivate me with the inserting of Sengkuni and Count Fosco. I detest each of them but I can’t deny I learn so much from their cunning.

I haven’t read “Mahābhārata” honestly. I only watched the Indian epic masterpiece when was I a little kid. Regularly watching the show was more than sufficient to have put Sengkuni as an unforgettable antagonist in my whole life. I heard him as reference when my father and his brother were referring to national prominent politician from New Order (I didn’t mention his name here, by the way). After I watched the series, I couldn’t agree more.

Sengkuni was best remembered because of his sly tactics for making his 100 nephews known as Korawa defeating their five cousins called Pandawa. Sengkuni was manipulative, provocative person who ignited hatred in the hearts of the Korawa people, especially Duryodana. His resentment toward Pandawa stemmed from his objection when his father accepted a marriage proposal for his sister, Gandari, from Dretarastra, a blind, kind-hearted prince from Hastinapura kingdom. Sengkuni, who was actually a prince from Gandhara empire, wished his sister would have married with Dretarastra’s brother, Pandu. Pandu was the father of Pandawa whereas Dretarastra was the father of Korawa. Despite the two’s good relationship, their sons were fighting for possessing Kuru empire with Sengkuni as the mastermind. Their story is known as Mahabharata.

Count Fosco or Isidor Ottavio Baldassare Fosco was not a layman. Count (male)/ Countess (female) or Conte in Italian language refers to a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility, according to Pine, L.G. Titles: How the King Became His Majesty. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1992. P. 73. OCLC 27827106.

Personally, Count Fosco is like some types of people that I know in my life. They have certain attitudes that make them looking like noble people on the surface. The way they talk, how they treat others are different from common people. They know how to keep their tongues in check even when they are in debts or other huge problems. I call them as those who are enslaved to creating good images.

Such is what I learn from Count Fosco. He was in dire need of money but he was not looking as desperate person. He maintained his good humor sense, greeted strangers, and treated people nicely. He didn’t let others know what trouble he was in because that would taint his noble status. This what made Marian Halcombe firstly liked him. After she knew him a little bit longer, she found out who this man truly was. Her realization that Count Fosco was reading her mind and studying her behavior frightened her. This what made the protagonist was very careful in dealing with him. Unlike Laura Fairlie who was frontally disliking him, Mariam was more patient because she knew she must be resourceful and intelligent to get over him.

In addition to his observing nature, Count Fosco was good-tempered person, especially for those who were against his wishes, such as Mariam Halcombe and Laura Fairlie. He knew how to differently handle the two given their traits. Count Fosco was also persistent when it came to reaching his goals. Here, he carefully executed his plans of taking over 21,000 pounds belonging to Laura Fairlie through very well-planned timeline. He knew very well that good strategy wasn’t enough. There required patience to let things rolling on as he planned them, the trait that wasn’t possessed by Sir Percival Glyde.

Count Fosco and Sengkuni were top “brain washers”. While Count Sengkuni consistently whispered devilish words to the Korawa people, Count Fosco did the same thing for his wife, Madame Fosco, who was actually Laura’s aunt. She was so obedient to her husband that she worshipped him like a god. Count Fosco “guided” Sir Percival Glyde, his close friend, in their goals of getting the money.

Walter Hartright could have toppled him with just one strong blow. And I wished he did that because I really, completely detested Count Fosco. Of course, Wilkie Collins didn’t opt for that. Further legal consequence might emerge for Walter Hartright. Marian Halcombe’s descriptions became Walter Hartright’s weapons when confronting him in his rented room before he went away to Paris.

Much like Marian Halcombe, Walter Hartright was patient and clever. On top of that, his sincerity guided this man to smoothly deal with Count Fosco. Walter Hartright fully understood he had to be very well-spoken to confront a manipulative person like Count Fosco.

As Walter Hartright didn’t have legal supports for proving Count Fosco’s wrongdoings, Wilkie Collins remarkably ended the life of Count Fosco. He was killed by unknown people from his past, politically related, in a strange land (Paris) then surrounded by Parisians in a public place. Count Fosco’s life was eventually very much disgraced.